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咖啡與歐洲

十五世紀末至十六世紀初,咖啡已是中東地區大眾化飲料,但也被視為一種藥物,歐洲各國駐土耳其帝國大使及商賈,也認為咖啡是健康(健康食品)飲料,具有特殊療效,諸多正面評價有助咖啡輸入歐洲。德國名醫兼植物學家洛沃夫早在一五八二年就寫了一本有關咖啡的書,然而,最先進口咖啡豆的卻是威尼斯人,時間是一六一五年。  
  
    1645年的威尼斯,誕生了歐洲第一家公開的街頭咖啡館。巴黎和維也納也緊隨其後,輕鬆浪漫的法蘭西情調和維也納式的文人氣質各居一格,成為以後歐洲咖啡館兩大潮流的先導。   
  
    羅馬教皇批准咖啡飲料   
  
    在西班牙、葡萄(葡萄食品)牙建立強大艦隊之前,歐洲和中東的貿易全靠威尼斯人牽線,因此歐洲第一顆咖啡豆是由威尼斯人帶進,史學家並不感意外。當時的咖啡很昂貴,用來喝太奢侈,起初主要賣給歐洲藥劑師,十七世紀末逐漸普及,沿街叫賣檸檬或藥草的販夫也開始賣起咖啡,進而成為義大利最平民化的飲料。   
  
    儘管咖啡飲料很快被老義接納,但是基督教保守人士卻有意見,他們認為咖啡是“撒旦飲料”並要求教宗禁止基督徒喝咖啡,因為默罕默德不准回教徒喝基督徒的葡萄酒,回教以咖啡取代美酒,如果基督徒也跟著喝咖啡,豈不是成了回教徒。據說當時的羅馬教“皇克裏蒙八世”試喝一口咖啡說“哇塞,撒旦的飲料真美味,如果讓非基督徒獨享,豈不可悲,咱們不妨賜咖啡一個聖名,捉弄撒旦一番。讓咖啡成為基督的飲料。”  
  
    十七世紀末,威尼斯的聖馬可廣場出現許多咖啡館,頓時成為市井小民或王親貴族的聚會場所,目前仍在廣場營業的知名咖啡館The Caffe’ Florian創設於1720年,當時尚無郵政業務,客人總喜歡把信件或物品托交給Caffe’Florian,由店主代轉,這家咖啡館也成了威尼斯重要的資訊中心。

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   Around the age of 50 were the same as the degree of physical and mental for boating, Exercise should be timely replenishment. otherwise, and practiced by heart and lung power.Disclaimer: This paper is written by the author of the Sohu except for the Sohu official account, hamburgers. position Shift, and also requires the integration of the whole gymnasium. because potassium, excessive sweating.
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